is located in the west part Of Iran. From the population point of view, it is the ninth most populated city in Iran. It is considered as on the main cities in the region. Availability of water and soil resources provides the best situation for agricultural activities. Fertilized fields are situated in cold, moderate and hot cliamates.
History and Culture
The Goutic or Kasi migrants resided in the mountainous territory of the Zagross in the 3rd and fourth millennium BC, ultimately occupying Mesopotamia. According to the Babylonian, Assyrian and Elamite inscriptions, tribes such as Lului, Gouti, Fayeri, Amouda and Parsovariz were settled in the skirts of the Zagross. The Luluis or Lalos (the ancestors of the Lors), in the past inhabited Zahab, Shahr-e-Zoor and Soleimaniyeh. It is for the first time, that "Medes" were mentioned in the attacks of the Assyrians to the jurisdiction of the current Kurdestan.
Therefore, it is understood that the Medes were present in the skirts of the Zagross as early as the first millennium BC. Besides the Medes, there were other tribes such as Pars and Kurds in this region. The construction of the city of Kermanshah is related to Bahram Shah Sassanid, the governor of Kerman during his father's reign; hence it was named Kermanshah. The Arabs took hold of the same on their victory over the Iranians in the battle of Nahavand. In the 4th century AH, a minor Kurdish dynasty, named as Hosnaviyeh gained independence in the western sector, and ruled for a period of about 50 years. The large castle of Sermaj, which was constructed near Dinvar, was considered as a seat of power and defense and burial of valuable treasures. In the year 441 AH, Soltan Togrol Saljuqi dispatched a hundred soldiers to take possession of the Sermaj Castle, and captured it after a period of 4 years. During the Saljuqi era, Kermanshah was a thriving city and in order to confront Masoud Saljuqi, the Abbaside Caliph sent forces to this city. In the Mongol period, due to the attack of Helakoo to the city of Baqdad, the city of Kermanshah witnessed heavy damages. During the Teimoorid period, Kermanshah came under the realm of the Hamadan territory. In the 9th and 10th centuries AH, the Ottomans repeatedly attacked Kermanshah.
According to narrations of foreign travelers of the times, Kermanshah was a thriving city with several caravansaries and bridges in the Safavid era. Specially due to the great attention paid by the Safavids to religious pilgrimages, and Kermanshah being en route to Karbala and Najaf, this city thrived to a great extent. During the reign of Nader, the ancient castle of the city was demolished and a new one was constructed. Karim Khan Zand captured the city and in the Qajar period, it came to be known as a center of the western sector and also a seat of government. The son of Fathali Shah, Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah confronted the Ottomans from this city, and alike other cities of the country, Kermanshah played an important role in the constitutional movement.During the World War I and II, Kermanshah came under the control of foreign powers. Today, this province is a prosperous one, and its provincial capital is the city of Kermanshah. The said province is of the Kurd residing territory of Iran and the Kurdish language has a close tie with the Persian language here, besides being similar grammatically too. The Kurdish language has various dialects, the most outstanding of which are named as, Kalhori, Urami, Sourani (Jafi), Laki and Farsi. The people of the province are of the Aryan race, and their religious beliefs play a vital part in the culture adapted by them. Great poets and writers have arisen from this region.