General Information About Gorgan
This new province was created as a result of the division of Mazandaran province into two smaller administrative units. It borders on Tukmanistan Republic to the north, Khorasan province to the east, Semnan province to the south, the Caspian Sea and the Guilan province to the west. Its climate varies greatly under the influence of a number of geographical factors such as the altitude, 1atitude, trend of Alborz mountains, distance from the sea, Turkman Sahra (Turkman Desert), Siberian plain to the north of Russia, local and regional. winds, displacement of northern and western air masses, as well as the dense forests. It receives maximum amount of precipitation during autumn and the least in summer months. Part of the province is occupied by inhospitable steppe and marshland. The Turkman Desert occupies the strip south of the Atrak River, which forms a part of the border with Turkmanistan Republic. In the northeast, the forest is less dense and the peaks are lower than further west. The more fertile Dasht-e Gorgan (Gorgan plain), between the Desert and the mountains, formed, until recently, the boundary between the settled and nomadic populations. The population is largely T, and the threat posed to the settled communities by this previously wild and nomadic tribe only receded at the end of the last century. Like Mazandaran, Golestan province and its surrounding areas were settled much earlier than Guilan, and the Gorgan plain in particular is believed to contain some of the most important archeological sites (older than 6000 years) in west Asia.
History and Culture
There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras.
According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace". The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.
Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC).
The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.
At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.
Gurgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century.
The "Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".
Gurgan and its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia (the Greater Khorasan) or the Tabaristan regions.
Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.